Die Yakuza war einst die mächtigste Verbrecherorganisation in Japan. Aber diese Zeiten sind lange vorbei. Die Yakuza, eine kriminelle. Heutzutage sind die Yakuza ein Tabu, über das man in Japan nicht gerne spricht. Viele Japaner sehen sie als einen Schandfleck auf der stolzen. HERBERT, Yakuza im Wandel, 18, 26, 28, 30, 32; DERS., Japan nach Sonnenuntergang, ; KAWAMURA, Gesellschaftliche Bedingungen organisierter.
Die Yakuza – Portrait einer einst mächtigen OrganisationHERBERT, Yakuza im Wandel, 18, 26, 28, 30, 32; DERS., Japan nach Sonnenuntergang, ; KAWAMURA, Gesellschaftliche Bedingungen organisierter. Mord mit Sturmgewehr schockiert Japan. Ein japanischer Yakuza-Führer wird in einem Bandenkrieg niedergemäht. Es ist ein rarer Fall in einem. Japan-Experte Tetsu Tanimura beschreibt die Entstehung und die aktuelle Lage der Yakuza in Japan.
Japan Yakuza Navigation menu VideoThe Most Dangerous Area in Tokyo - Kabukicho 9/5/ · “Japan’s ageing population is a factor, of course, but the yakuza scene is no longer an attractive proposition for young men,” Tomohiko Suzuki, an author and expert on the yakuza, told the. Yakuza Exam To join the Yamaguchi-gumi, which is the largest Yakuza organisation in Japan, members have to sit a page exam. The Yamaguchi-gumi created the exam after the government passed harsher laws to crackdown on organized crime. Yakuza is the most well known gang in Japan, but there are also youth groupings, and the Bosokozu, usually identifiable by their motorcycles or customized cars (Kersten, J. (3), ). Surprisingly many people in society don't mind the presence of yakuza, because of their charitable work.
The oyabun of different organizations was allowed to have a surname and carry two swords which the government only allowed the samurai class to do.
During the feudal era of Japan, many people were poor and only a few were rich. Some people believe that the Yakuza are descended from a ragtag group of people who took money from feudal lords, which they then distributed to the poor.
After the and earthquakes, some of the first groups to help the victims were Yakuza organizations. They gave food, water, and other necessities.
They also sent out people to help at the Fukushima power plant. Although some people say that the latter was just a PR stunt and the people sent to the plant were tricked, bribed, or forced to go there.
When the samurai class was no longer needed, many swordsmen found themselves without any source of income. So, they began to form street gangs called kabukimono.
They would dress up flamboyantly and act violently. They would harass and extort money from peasants. When this became unprofitable, they moved to cities and offered their services as thugs and bruisers.
This samurai spirit is still alive in some of the rituals of the Yakuza. The members are also supposed to strictly follow the code of the samurai.
The Aizukotetsu-kai in Kyoto established around is considered the longest-existing Yakuza society. The Yamaguchi-gumi is the largest with about 9, members today.
But the majority of their income still comes from illegal activities. But recent laws have restricted their activities significantly. In , a law was passed that made it illegal for Yakuza to be involved in legitimate businesses.
In , ordinances were passed that included hefty penalties for those who pay off Yakuza or do business with them.
The government in Fukuoka set up a program that offered financial assistance to Yakuza members who want to get out of their gangs and get legitimate jobs.
Ironically, turning to crime had given the Burakumin their first taste of respect. By Mark Oliver. The Yakuza aren't just the "Japanese Mafia.
Share Tweet Email. Report a bad ad experience. Mark Oliver. Another feature of yakuza culture is the tradition of yubitsume or severing the joint of the little finger.
Yubitsume is performed as an apology when a yakuza member defies or otherwise displeases his boss. The guilty party cuts off the top joint of his left pinkie finger and presents it to the boss; additional transgressions lead to the loss of additional finger joints.
This custom originated in Tokugawa times; the loss of finger joints makes the gangster's sword grip weaker, theoretically leading him to depend more on the rest of the group for protection.
Today, many yakuza members wear prosthetic fingertips to avoid being conspicuous. The largest yakuza syndicates operating today are the Kobe-based Yamaguchi-gumi, which includes about half of all active yakuza in Japan; the Sumiyoshi-kai, which originated in Osaka and boasts about 20, members; and the Inagawa-kai, out of Tokyo and Yokohama, with 15, members.
The gangs engage in criminal activities such as international drug-smuggling, human trafficking, and arms smuggling. However, they also hold significant amounts of stock in large, legitimate corporations, and some have close ties with the Japanese business world, the banking sector, and the real estate market.
This meeting displayed the close relationship with the yakuza and the state and their similar agendas. The two were both concerned with the upsurge in left sided activism, including the upturn in labor union strikes that were seen by the government as being unpatriotic threats to the societal stability.
The state encouraged capitalist production and yakuza were more than happy to accept the payment of company management for their assistance, allowing them to be hired as strikebreakers.
Yakuza and the state also came together in their common attribute of the purposeful use of violence, as a way to exert and maintain their power.
This meeting and shared agenda is something that would never be seen amongst any other Mafia group. Yakuza and the state became partners, establishing that there was, and still is legitimacy within the yakuza violence.
In Japan, there was now a relationship between the legitimate and the illegitimate. Because the Japanese officials were not contesting legitimate violence, it allowed for a kind of violent legitimacy.
The meeting was covered by media, yakuza unbothered by the public display of their power. Japanese policing is very different than that of America.
Recently, the police have used a of contract laws, civil laws, ordinances, and criminal laws to arrest the yakuza more frequently.
Additionally, many banks, auto-dealers, and real-estate agencies have organized crime exclusionary ordinances within their contracts.
The police are making things increasingly more difficult for yakuza. In modern society, one can share information from the yakuza with the police, but information one gets from the police can never be shared to the yakuza.
The reason for this aids in my argument of the yakuza public face. The reason why yakuza want to share information with a reporter even if they go to the police, is because they use information as a way to hurt a rival gang.
They even use this tactic to stop acts of fellow yakuza branches. Yakuza still follow some level of an ethics code.
If a branch of yakuza is acting in child pornography or something of that sort, another branch of yakuza that still stands by their traditional code will go against a modern crime as such, and tell the media.
There is a very low rate of individual crime in Japan, almost all of it is organized. The yakuza can be seen acting as a local boys and girls club for young misfits and school dropouts, bringing them in and making them members.
Since the Yakuza families control most of the movement of drugs, this creates an overall better situation. The drug trade is so condensed by yakuza, that it removes the drug dealing from the streets.
Japan arrested 17 people for drug related crime in Just the presence of the yakuza deters small scale crime.
In , Japanese police officers were able to seize less than 70 kg of cocaine. In the US, the amount of seized cocaine was 55 tons Kersten, J.
If one compares the Japanese drug crime situation to that of other industrialized countries, it seems whatever the police are doing is working, or maybe rather what the yakuza are doing.
The police force in Japan has been growing through the years, even though the crime rate has been falling. To counter the claim of the yakuza being the ones to rid crime from the streets, maybe there has been a concentration of arrest for small crimes, because there are too many police officers for too little crime in Japan.
The possession of a small amount of drugs, such as marijuana, is all it takes for police focus to be centered upon you The Economist The police in Japan are inefficient.
The people of Japan and organized crime police themselves. Yakuza know to be strategic with their underground work.
The yakuza are lawful criminals. Yakuza are channeling their efforts differently in the modern era.
They are putting less pressure on the commission of violent offenses, and the provision of illegal services such as gambling, drugs, prostitution, to control now legitimate businesses such as construction companies, restaurants, bars, nightclubs, and finance companies.
Adelstein 66 1 , contributes to this discussion by claiming, the yakuza are identified under the idea that power is in numbers.
The main difference from the historical to the modern yakuza man is that they now have gone international. Yakuza have capital, the manpower, and the information network.
Similar to that of the Italian Mafia , the yakuza hierarchy is reminiscent of a family. The rigid hierarchy and discipline are usually matched by a right-wing ultranationalistic ideology.
Kobun traditionally take a blood oath of allegiance , and a member who breaks the yakuza code must show penance—historically through a ritual in which the kobun cuts off his little finger with a sword and presents it to his oyabun , though this practice has declined over time.
Over time the yakuza have shifted toward white-collar crime , relying more and more on bribery in lieu of violence, and indeed in the early 21st century they were one of the least murderous criminal groups in the world.
These activities make the relationship between yakuza and police in Japan a complicated one; yakuza membership itself is not illegal, and yakuza-owned businesses and gang headquarters are often clearly marked.
Members have even been called upon to perform public functions, as when a yakuza force was assembled to serve as a security force during a visit by U.
Bruno, A. East Asian Intelligence and Organised Crime. Jean-Pierre Limosin. Cinema Epoch , Organized crime groups in Asia.
Mumbai underworld Dacoity. Israeli mafia. Lebanese mafia. Pakistani mafia. Bahala Na Gang Waray-Waray gangs. Armenian mafia Azerbaijani mafia Georgian mafia Russian mafia including Chechen mafia.
Secret societies in Singapore. Chao pho. Turkish mafia Kurdish mafia. Organized crime groups active in the Americas.
Ashkenazum Puccio family Zwi Migdal. See: Organized crime groups in Canada. Cape Verdean organized crime Nigerian mafia.
Mafia bibliography. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.
Wikimedia Commons. Principal clans: Yamaguchi-gumi Sumiyoshi-kai Inagawa-kai. It is also involved in operations in Asia and the United States.
Shinobu Tsukasa , also known as Kenichi Shinoda, is the Yamaguchi-gumi's current oyabun. He follows an expansionist policy, and has increased operations in Tokyo which has not traditionally been the territory of the Yamaguchi-gumi.
The Sumiyoshi-kai is the second largest Yakuza family, with an estimated 4, members. Sumiyoshi-kai is a confederation of smaller Yakuza groups.
Structurally, Sumiyoshi-kai differs from its principal rival, the Yamaguchi-gumi , in that it functions like a federation. The chain of command is more relaxed, and its leadership is distributed among several other members.
The Inagawa-kai is the third largest Yakuza family in Japan, with roughly 3, members. It is based in the Tokyo-Yokohama area and was one of the first Yakuza families to expand its operations outside of Japan.
Pigs and Battleships. Sympathy for the Underdog. Battles Without Honor and Humanity. Black Rain. Showdown in Little Tokyo.
Phillip G. Young Yakuza French.